Archive for May, 2015

physical attributes of Priests- a conversation

A conversation on the Orthodox Peace Fellowship mailing list regarding the physical attributes of Priests. The names of the two persons conversing, a layperson and a Priest, are omitted. 

Question (layperson):

I was just talking with a Romanian friend who’s son is hoping to enter the local high school for those wishing to join the priesthood (or become iconographers or choir directors)   i was asking her what the entrance test is like for this high school and she said one component is a physical exam.  partly to check for physical disease or ailments that might pose problems with ascetic practices, but also to check for any physical deformities.  she said it was based on an OT law about the priest not being marred in any physical way.  I immediately asked her if my son (who was born with an undeveloped ear) would then not be eligible to be a priest, and she said only if he had an operation to repair the ear. she didn’t have very much theology to justify this, but she said even people of short stature or obesity or who had been in an accident would not pass the physical.

I was wondering if this is the case in other countries and if so, what is the reasoning behind such discriminating laws.  as a mother of a bright, energetic, faith-filled son, it is incomprehensible for me to think he would be denied following the vocation of priesthood because of a physical anomaly.

Answer (Priest):

The canons do prohibit anyone with a physical defect of abnormality from being ordained to the priesthood.   That would be true in Orthodoxy everywhere.   I cannot say to what extent the canon is enforced.  Also I’m not sure totally what “defects” would exclude a person from being ordained, the canons may in fact specifically list them.   I’m guessing that because of the actions of a priest in the liturgy, he would be expected to have 2 healthy legs and 2 healthy arms and hands, could not be blind, or mute, probably not deaf.

I think it is based as you stated in the Old Testament ideas of the priesthood.  Just like the goat, bull or sheep to be offered had to be without defect, so too the offerer was to be without blemish.   In Christianity I think it has to do with the way in which the priest is somehow  to be an image of Christ himself.   A person with a physical defect would have been seen as either representing Christ imperfectly or representing a defective Christ.
I am not defending the thinking to you, but am postulating that this idea about the priest evolved over time.  Today we have a different set of values regarding handicaps/disabilities and also different ideas about what the priest images or what he represents.   So yes, some of our values would be in conflict with some of the values of the ancients.  We do emphasize things they would not, and vice versa.
It all has to do with an idea of what the priest is “imaging” or represents.  If he is being thought of as somehow standing for God or Christ, it was thought he must be without visible defect.  This was there idealism about what the clergy represent.
And again, I have no idea whether or not bishops enforce this or whether today this would be another canon that might be overlooked.  It would I think depend on the nature of the “anomaly.”   We tend to be more functionary than symbolically minded, so we might not have a negative reaction to a priest with an anomaly if it doesn’t really impede his function in the liturgies.
As an aside – when we built our new church facility, we had a raised altar area, with two steps leading up to it.  The local building inspector did not want to approve it because it did not meet handicapped accessible codes (there being no ramp or elevator for such a person to get into the altar).  One of the parishioners told the inspector that in our tradition a handicapped person would not normally be serving at the altar, and so there was no need for handicapped accessibility.  The inspector dropped the issue because of our being a church.   But I think many Orthodox churches would have altar areas that are not handicapped accessible.

Follow-up Question (layperson):

Thank you so much, Father [X], i was hoping to hear from one of the priests on the list.  Your answer does shed some light, but also leaves me with many other questions.  What if a priest wears glasses, does he then not represent a perfect, unblemished Christ?  What if after being ordained, a priest loses a limb, or is confined to a wheelchair later in life, is he then prohibited from serving as a priest?  I know i am showing my very western, rational roots with all this questioning.  Most of my experience of orthodoxy has been in Romania, where physical anomalies are viewed very differently than in the west, so i am trying to discern what is cultural and what is orthodox.
In regards to the steps to the altar, in our church here in Romania, the Eucharist is offered on a raised altar area.  We have many old people with canes, walkers, etc that come up (with support from others) the one step to receive the Eucharist, but in our church in the states, the priest stands on the floor level, below the step and there offers the Eucharist.  I remember being at a church in another part of our town here, where a woman, with the help of others, carried her child who was confined to wheelchair, up the steps of the church (probably 10-15 steps) and to the altar to receive the holy mysteries.  almost as difficult as lowering someone through the roof!
Thank you again for your patience with my ignorance and my persistent questions.

Follow-up Answer (Priest):

Many priests wear glasses these days, so obviously it is not considered an impediment to ordination.  I don’t know what the canons specify or what the ancients would have thought about that.  But at least in theory it does represent an imperfection, but not one that would stop a priest from functioning.
As for a priest who loses a limb or becomes confined to a wheel chair – I don’t think the canons remove him from the priesthood, but he would not be able to serve at the altar.   We have a retired priest in our area who is confined to a wheelchair and comes to church from time to time and does not serve at the altar, though we do give him communion at the same time as the rest of the clergy – we take it to him where he sits in the nave.  He is still considered to be a priest, but would not physically be able to do the liturgy.
I’m sure there are priests who became temporarily disabled – broken leg or arm for example – and I don’t know what happens in their parishes while they recover from their injuries. I would think the main concern of the priest would be dropping the chalice due to the injury, and so some might not want to serve.  But in places where priests are too few, I’m sure some exceptions are made to allow a disabled priest to serve.  Modern people are often more practical than idealistic.

Benjamin Connor: Our Iconic Witness

Benjamin Connor  begin this talk with an explanation of icons from an Orthodox Christian perspective as a foundation for discussing the “missio dei” (the mission of God) with a focus on the role of persons with disabilites. It is an academic talk, with many terms specific to the academic disability community and the Protestant Christian academic missions community. But there are some gems in his talk which are in line with Orthodox Christian understandings of the matter.

Connor believes that the emphasis in mission must be placed on growth toward the fullness of Christ by the Body of Christ rather than simply on geographical expansion or growth in numbers. And a key aspect to this is the inclusion of the cultural perspectives of all peoples, including disabled peoples. He proclaims, “the incarnation is the divine manifestation of contextualization.” (God the Word became what we are- human- that we may participate in divine life.) Going further with this incarnational understanding, Connor speaks on how our body participates in the image of God.

He relates how at a camp for young people with disabilities he had sought to comfort a young man with down syndrome who had been crying for two days, but without success. Then another young man with cerebral palsy named Craig came up to them, right between them, and the result was that the crying stopped and the first young man laid his head on Craig’s shoulder. Here we see the disabled person’s ability to comfort in this situation where the professional could not.

He sums up his talk by returning to his theme of iconic witness; the witness of people with disabilities is a necessary and essential aspect to the fullness of the Church’s iconic witness to Christ. As St. Paul writes,

 “The eye cannot say to the hand, ‘I have no need of you,’ nor the head to the feet, ‘I have no need of you.’ On the contrary, the parts of the body which seem to be weaker are indispensable, [. . .] God has so composed the body [. . .] that there be no discord in the body, but that the members have the same care for one another. If one member suffers, all suffer together; if one member is honored, all rejoice together.” (1 Corinthians 12:21-22, 24-26, RSV)

Books by Benjamin Connor:

“The Accessible Church”

by the Very Reverend Father John Matusiak  –Rector of St. Joseph Church, Wheaton, IL; managing editor of the publication “The Orthodox Church;” and secretary of the Orthodox Church of America’s Diocese of the Midwest.> (at the time this article was written) Fr. John addresses accessibility in terms of overcoming both architectural and attitudinal barriers. An excerpt: 

A major attitudinal barrier to overcome is the idea that people with disabilities are people in need. As Orthodox Christians we should strive to see people as having abilities instead of disabilities, capable of offering leadership and a host of other talents to the Church and community.

The Accessible Church

 The rights of people with handicapping conditions first received the support of federal law with the enactment of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Title V, Section 504, prohibits discrimination against qualified persons with handicapping conditions in federally-assisted programs or activities solely on the basis of disability.

During the years immediately following enactment, administrators and advocates learned that non-discrimination is more difficult to practice with the disabled than in cases of racial or sexual discrimination. The reason is that people with disabilities may need different treatment than others for equal access to public life. That realization prompted demonstrations at Health, Education, and Welfare offices across the country and led to the development of the Section 504 regulation in 1977.

For the most part, churches have ignored the needs of the disabled, and many church buildings are virtually inaccessible. Steps, pew placement, inaccessible washroom facilities, and insensitivity to the needs of the disabled in general have posed problems for decades. Yet as we consider the means by which the Orthodox Church in America can effectively evangelize, grow, and reach out to everyone — including the disabled — we should consider accessibility one of our top priorities, as every parish can expect that one out of four of its members will be handicapped at some point in life. 

A major attitudinal barrier to overcome is the idea that people with disabilities are people in need. As Orthodox Christians we should strive to see people as having abilities instead of disabilities, capable of offering leadership and a host of other talents to the Church and community. The parish which truly seeks to evangelize as Christ commanded will welcome all people, as Christ Himself did.

Building Language

 Let’s consider a few facts.

The disabled persons are not necessarily handicapped. A handicap exists when the disabled person cannot overcome a barrier. Therefore the responsibility for accessibility is in those who create barriers or who should remove such barriers once their presence is recognized.

Buildings send messages in what might be termed “building language.” The message that church buildings need to say is “welcome.” A church building or parish hall with countless steps, inadequate sound systems, or inaccessible facilities surely does not extend a warm invitation to the disabled.

We may fool ourselves that proposed structural changes are planned only for the permanently disabled people. Not so. At any moment many able-bodied parishioners are recovering from illness or are temporarily in casts or on crutches. Further, every parishioner is growing older. These are all conditions which benefit from “barrier-free” access to our church facilities.

One of the purposes of the Church is the maintenance of Christian fellowship. We assume that it is a person’s desire to continue active involvement in worship and in fellowship as long as life will allow. On the other hand, every parish has its list of homebound parishioners who are no longer active. The decision to be homebound is theirs. They perceive that, given their disability, to leave home and enter the church building or hall is too difficult. If every church building could be barrier free, the greater part of the perceived difficulty will have been removed.

Assessing Needs

An Accessibility Audit is one of the easiest ways of discovering architectural barriers, and considering the different ways in which these barriers can be removed is usually quite simple.

Determining costs, procedures, and the time involved in removing physical barriers is more difficult. But with such information in hand, decisions, plans, and implementation take place at whatever pace a particular parish accepts.

Awareness-building might proceed more quickly if able-bodied parishioners used a wheelchair or crutches to tour their parish facilities in order to experience first hand some of the problems faced by disabled persons.

It is also essential to recognize the fact that we are long past that time when the need for accessibility developed. The long list of those now considered shut-in makes that self-evident. We need also to remember that removing existing architectural barriers will not, of itself, return to active parish life those who are comfortably established in their home-bound lifestyle. Those for whom we are becoming barrier free are, primarily, those who are presently active and those becoming active as time goes on, the one out of four who will become disabled at some point in their lives. Our goal should be to extend their time of active participation for as long as possible.

What Is An Accessible Church?

An accessible church is one that has overcome:

The physical or architectural barriers that make it difficult for people with handicaps to enter or to participate fully;

The attitudinal barriers that keep them from feeling welcome. Of the two, the attitudinal barrier is the most difficult to overcome. Once awareness, sensitivity, and understanding are achieved, the removal of physical barriers becomes an easy task.

 Attitudinal barriers might be more easily overcome if we kept the following points in mind:

People with disabilities also have many gifts and talents given to them by God. We are all called to be stewards of our own gifts and to encourage others to share theirs as well.

Disabled people should be included in parish leadership roles. When planning programs, learn firsthand the needs of the whole parish.

Parishioners may have relatives with handicapping conditions who are anticipating or experiencing attitudinal or physical barriers. Listen to their fears or anger and involve them in the process of change.

To assure that people with visual disabilities can fully participate in liturgical services, contact your local society for the blind. For little or no cost they will gladly assist you in producing prayer books and other religious literature in Braille or large-type.

Christianity has a long and unfortunate history of excluding hearing-impaired persons. St. Augustine, an early Christian writer, declared that deaf persons could not be Christians because they could not “hear the Word.” Past mistakes do not justify continued insensitivity. Since it is generally impossible to offer services with sign language interpretations, consider better sound amplification, which can be accomplished by installing a “loop” system in the pews. Your local society for the hearing-impaired will provide information about mechanical means of access.

Non-sighted persons will want to move around parish facilities independently. Ushers or greeters can express their welcome by orienting them immediately to steps, doors, and corridors.

Several modifications may need to be made for equal access by those in wheelchairs. Can they move freely around the church? Are some pews shorter than others thereby allowing persons in wheelchairs to be part of a row rather than an appendage of the worshipping congregation?

When your parish has learned to integrate people with handicapping conditions into its life of service, you may want to explore new opportunities for outreach and evangelization by noting in parish publications, phone directory listings, and advertisements that the church building is accessible to the disabled. It is a proven fact that the disabled will more readily join churches which are accessible.

Because of its history of barring those with disabilities, the Church is challenged to seek out people with handicapping conditions and invite their participation in a common ministry. Elimination of architectural barriers, as vital as it is, is not enough. An on-going ministry to the disabled should be an integral part of every progressive parish.

From the Orthodox Church of America’s online Resource Handbook for Lay Ministries’ Parish Development Page, by Permission

Source of Picture: 

practical suggestions for Parish ministry

(from the Orthodox Church in America’s Resource Handbook for Lay Ministry)

Some Practical Suggestions for Parish Ministry to Persons with Special Needs,

by Fr. Stephen Plumlee, 1985. Click below to access: 

to our Church

This is a very detailed, parish-based, team-oriented plan with the following subtitles:

I. Introduction

II. Find people with special needs.

III. Help the parish be aware.

IV. Administer the program to those with special needs.

V. Conclusion

image from

An Orthodox Christian Children’s Book: Catherine’s Pascha

Written by Charlotte Riggle, Illustrated by R.J. Hughes

Catherine’s young friend Elizabeth has a disability.

The  book has it’s own webpage, which can be accessed here:  Catherine’s Pascha

The page describes the book,  Pascha (Orthodox Christian Easter. Pascha Eggs. Paschal Recipes. The Midnight Service. The meaning of it all, in the short but powerful homily. The Paschal Greeting in many languages. And more.) 

There are also  pictures of Orthodox Churches from every continent, including Antarctica, and their stories.

As well as instructions  in regard to buying the book.

picture from 

living with service dogs

A fellow Orthodox Christian blogger writes about service dogs and her life with the one she had recently acquired. Here is her page on service dogs: Service Dogs « Turtle Rock

She also has another weblog in regard to her life with a service dog: Living With the Woof 

Many of the saints interacted with animals in mutually supportive ways. At times God directed animals to serve saints, such as bringing food to them. Here is a post on another blog by an Orthodox Christian on the subject, with a list of references at the end: SAFCEI: Saints and animals

Here is a book on the subject: Animals and Man: A State of Blessedness, by Joanne Stefanatos

picture from The Poodle (and dog) blog

Fr. Stephen: Saved in Weakness

To access: Glory to God for All Things: Saved in Weakness 

Father Stephen Freeman writes concerning our need to acknowledge our weakness- regularly- by repentance, shame, (in moderate measure) and confession. We are not saved through what we accomplish, but by our awareness of our continuing need for pardon, cleansing and healing by God. 

St. Paul the Apostle

As St. Paul writes in his 2nd letter to the the Corinthians chapter 12:1-10, 

“It is doubtless not profitable for me to boast. I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord:  I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago—whether in the body I do not know, or whether out of the body I do not know, God knows—such a one was caught up to the third heaven.  And I know such a man—whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows— how he was caught up into Paradise and heard inexpressible words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter.  Of such a one I will boast; yet of myself I will not boast, except in my infirmities.  For though I might desire to boast, I will not be a fool; for I will speak the truth. But I refrain, lest anyone should think of me above what he sees me to be or hears from me. And lest I should be exalted above measure by the abundance of the revelations, a thorn in the flesh was given to me, a messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I be exalted above measure. Concerning this thing I pleaded with the Lord three times that it might depart from me. And He said to me,’My grace is sufficient for you, for My strength is made perfect in weakness.’ Therefore most gladly I will rather boast in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in needs, in persecutions, in distresses, for Christ’s sake. For when I am weak, then I am strong.”

New King James Version (NKJV)- Scripture taken from the New King James Version®. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
Icon from the domestic monk


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